It is said that a building is earthquake resistant when designed and constructed with a configuration suitable structural components and materials of appropriate dimensions with a ratio and sufficient strength to withstand the action of forces caused by earthquakes frequent.
Even when design and build a building to meet all requirements indicating design standards and building earthquake resistant , there is always the possibility that an even stronger earthquake is presented that have been planned and should be resisted by the building occur without full or partial collapses in the building.
Among the consideration we should take time to build buildings earthquake proof are: home earthquake kit
To be found places where the soil is stable , where there is no possibility of slipping or falling rocks in case of earthquake. Avoid located in riverbeds.
The housing must be built away from slopes of which will have doubts its stability or perform stabilization and protection of the slope . Do not build on loose soils on slopes, as during an earthquake can easily drop and drag the housing . If the slope of the slope is greater than 30% should seek the advice of a soil engineer and structural engineer .
- Geometry: should build walls in two directions perpendiculareach other, the geometry of the housing must be regular and symmetrical. A symmetrical housing, well built, better resists the action of earthquakes. Should avoid building homes with long and narrow forms where the long housing is greater than 3 times the width.
- Resistance: It is necessaryensure consistency in the use of materials on the walls, structures, decks and others. This allows a comprehensive response of the building in case of earthquake. Housing should be firm and keep his balance when subjected to vibration joins earthquake. Shaky and unstable housing can overturn or slide.
- Stiffness : It is desirable that the elements that makethe structure of the housing is monolithically spliced as a unit and that littleformed when the housing moves to the action of an earthquake.
- Continuity: For a building support an earthquake its structure must be robust, symmetrical, uniform, continuous or wellconnected. Sudden changes in its dimensions, its rigidity, lack of continuity, structural configuration disorderly or excessive overhangs falicitan the concentration of harmful forces, torques and strains that can cause serious damage or collapse of the building .
The materials must be of good quality to ensure adequate strength and ability to absorb and dissipate the energy the earthquake gives when the building is shaking.
- Cement: The cement must be in its original, cool packaging and used must ensure thatretains its characteristics of fine powder without lumps.
- Aggregates: Gravel and sand should not be dirty or mixed with organic matter (earth), swamp and clay. This causes the concrete strength decreases significantly or lot of cracks occurring in mortar.
Dosing of concrete
It must be done very carefully. It is recommended to consider the dosage as the structural element to be built. Where possible, the amount of water should be half of the amount of cement. The parts should be measured in the same container as bucket, jar or drawer. To obtain a specific good quality must control the amount of water is added.
It is recommended to measure parts sand and empty them on a clean, flat floor. Add the corresponding parts of cement and mix until uniform in color. Then add the parts gravel and water properly measures.
Once placed concrete on site, should chuzar with a smooth straight rod and having a rounded tip.
The vibrated concrete must be done to remove air bubbles in the concrete and prevent future ant or holes in the structural elements that weaken its strength, stiffness and continuity.
The concrete needs to cure time, because not all its particles react and harden at the same time. The curing time generally is one week. During this time the concrete should be protected from wind and sun and should be kept as moist as possible especialment6e the first three days.
The steel should preferably corrugated used. This improves the adhesion between the concrete and steel. Before pouring concrete should be checked that the reinforcement is clean of rust and grease.
If bricks are used to build walls to be placed entirely those wet or saturated with water, and on the contrary concrete blocks are used, these should be placed completely dry.
The dosage volume must be not less 1 unit of cement sand four, that is never less than 1: 4 (cement: sand). Lime does not replace the cement but improves mixing. Lime should be mixed with water (4th kg of lime per 55 gallons of water). About 48 hours after use, the good mortar is left scratching with a nail while the poor quality crumbles.